The Moon is the only natural satellite of Earth, leaving a distance of around 384,405 kilometers of our planet.
According to the latest count, there are over 150 moons in our solar system, to get an idea just in Neptune, you can find more than 13 of them, already for 27 Uranus, Saturn has 60, Jupiter is more to what has and has then 64.
The moon is not the greatest land of all the solar system, the greater is Ganymede, a moon of Jupiter that has a size exceeding even that of the earth. Despite this our moon remains the largest relative to its planet, with a size equivalent to 1/4 the size of Earth and 1/6 of its severity. So is the only celestial body visited by humans, and even where NASA intends to establish permanent bases in the future.
The satellite is seen when the Earth has phases and usually always shows its same face, a situation called tidal coupling, which generates numerous speculations about the so-called Dark Side of the Moon, that this actually is illuminated when we are in the period new moon. Their rotation periods are equal to the period of translation.
The moon still lacks an atmosphere of water and has very little solid state forms ice crystals. Lacks an atmosphere as there is erosion and surface of the moon remain intact for millions of years, being affected only by the collision of meteorites.
The moon is the main responsible for tidal effects that happen on Earth, and then comes the sun which in turn is important but has a much smaller share. It can be said that the tidal effect on earth as the tendency for the ocean monitor the movement of the moon’s orbit, and this effect causes friction with the ocean floor thereby slowing the rotation of the earth, easing moon around 3 centimeters per year.