Fuel is a substance that reacts with oxygen, producing heat, gases or even fire. The energy produced during these processes that characterize the fuel is considered fundamental to human needs, with all important for industrial production, since much of its operation is through machines that run from the fuel energy.
Numerous substances may be used in the manufacture of fuel. The origins of fossils, have oil, coal and natural gas, for example.
According to data from the International Energy Agency, about 87% of all the fuel that is consumed worldwide comes from fossil, non-renewable. These substances carbon compounds are attributed to a slow and long process of decomposition of organic matter production for fuel, such as gasoline and diesel, and lubricants, electricity and others. Despite the advantages, fossil fuels are polluting and contribute to global warming, acid rain gases that pollute the atmosphere, and contaminate water resources. But in addition, the day such fuels will be depleted. For these and other, there is the need to find options that can replace fossil fuels. And these were needs that drove the research of alternative biofuels.
Biofuel is a less aggressive to the environment, since the emission of greenhouse gases is almost nil. With renewable plant and animal products, its main raw materials for production are sugar cane, sugar beet, sorghum, oil palm, sunflower seed, rapeseed, corn, cassava, soybeans, water hyacinth, copal, wood, waste forestry, animal dung, agricultural waste, among others.
The use of biofuel brings numerous advantages such as minimum emission of greenhouse gases and contributing to increase employment and income in rural areas. But like everything, there is a downside: there are opponents of the use of biofuels on a large scale, since it provides the loss of soil nutrients, erosion and deforestation for planting of sugarcane, which also ends up generating increased CO2. Therefore, the intensification of plantation cane sugar is seen as the major negative point.
Taking all this into account, biofuels still deserves a careful and detailed analysis, which are addressed more clearly its positives and negatives.